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اثر ولتر از انتشارات توس - مترجم: هانیه فهیمی-داستان فلسفی

ساده‌دل به حساب عادت، با دمیدن خورشید و به بانگ خروس از خواب برخاست. او هم چون جماعت اعیان نبود که کسل و بی‌حال تا وقتی که خورشید به نصف‌النهار برسد در رخت خواب می لولند، نه می‌توانند بخوابند و نه می‌توانند برخیزند؛


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Not bought this book last time we visited Foyles; since it was lying around, I couldnt resist the temptation to read it again. You can read Candide any number of times. A particularly fine passage which I had forgotten, from the Eldorado sequence:
Cacambo expliquait les bons mots du roi à Candide, et quoique traduits, ils paraissaient toujours des bons mots. De tout ce qui étonnait Candide, ce nétait pas ce qui létonna le moins.

Cacambo explained the kings witty remarks to Candide, and, although they had been translated, they were still witty. Of all the things that astonished Candide, this was not the one that astonished him least.


مشاهده لینک اصلی
Para Um Mundo Melhor


Pontualmente, cada Acontecimento é a resultante dum conjunto de premissas que causaram a inevitabilidade do seu Acontecer.
Tudo está bem como está pois nada poderia estar onde não está.
Donde se conclui que Tudo está o Melhor Possível.

Note-se que, o que está aqui em causa não é a Imutabilidade do Todo.
Esta Filosofia apenas preconiza que qualquer alteração ao nível do que acontece, pressupõe uma investigação prévia da conjuntura responsável pelo Acontecimento.
Só a criação dum conjunto de novas premissas poderá ocasionar um Novo Resultado.

Ao demonstrar que só a Aceitação do Estado de Coisas Existente é Verosímil, Voltaire está a incitar-nos não à Passividade mas sim à Mudança.

O Todo Existente, carece de facto, duma Urgente Intervenção!
@Está visto que os homens corromperam um pouco a natureza, pois não nasceram lobos e tornaram-se lobos. Deus não lhes deu nem canhões nem baionetas e eles fabricaram-nos para se [email protected]

Embora forçados a aceitar o que está a acontecer, cabe-nos impedir que o que está para vir se manifeste como uma eterna repetição do mesmo.

Na sua última frase, Cândido aponta-nos o Caminho:
@É preciso Cultivar o Nosso [email protected]
Com outras e melhores sementes, acrescento eu!
Melhorando as causas, melhoram os efeitos!...

مشاهده لینک اصلی
This is quite a remarkable book – a satirical attack on the notion that we live in the best of all possible worlds and that therefore all that happens in such a world invariably happens for the best. Voltaire is supposed to have written the whole thing in barely three days – a rather productive half-week.

What I found particularly interesting here was the discussion of war – how the horrors of war are presented in such an off-hand way and almost invariably the utter inhumanity of what is described (rape and even eating half of someone’s bum) is just chalked up to ‘the way things are’. The question of free will, human agency and responsibility for our actions – something that the notion of our living in the best of all possible worlds does much to undermine – is never far from the surface here, but invariably it remains just under the surface. This is a ‘show, don’t tell’ book – even if the showing is heavy-handed in the extreme. It would take a particularly committed optimist to go through what the characters in this book do and come out the other end still thinking the world is beyond any possibility of improvement.

What I particularly liked, though, was the very end and the garden that is being tended. It is through Candide’s labours to create this garden that he finally finds some sense of human dignity, stability and even a kind of happiness. The book is otherwise the odyssey of a fool, but this final acceptance of life as struggle and a kind of stoic acceptance of the rewards that come from labour is quite a lovely thing, really. Even before I got to the end I kept thinking the whole way through the book about how different Eastern and Western notions of these things are and have been. When the Buddha was first confronted by the world outside his idyllic palace he realised life was suffering. It is odd that when we in the West are confronted with much the same vision of the world around us we all too often excuse that suffering as being necessary for the greater good. This little book by Voltaire shows such inhumanity isn’t a necessary assumption of the Western tradition, that sometimes even we can be shocked by the horrors we inflict on others and even humbled by suffering.


مشاهده لینک اصلی
This book does not stick so well in my memory in either a negative or positive way, but I think this comes from the book being a mixture of two things which I could not feel more differently about: allegory and satire.

The first I find to be as silly and pointless as Aesop or Passion Plays. Characters in an allegory are oversimplified symbols, and so cannot comment on the nature of actual human beings. The style is already so firmly affixed to cultural states and norms that it cannot really say anything beyond the dichotomous, and dualists are blinded by their egos.

I do love satire, but that is generally because of the wit and skill it takes to subvert and re-imagine. Unfortunately, once one has drawn so deeply on hyperbole in a work, it loses its ability to find that necessarily uncomfortable grey area--that rift between assumption and observation.

Voltaire is witty and funny, but his condemnation and praise falls only on unrealistic absolutes, and hence becomes only political rather than philosophical. In this, he becomes in many ways Shakespeares opposite; whose characters were so vaguely sketched that they could be held representative of many disparate identities.

It is too easy to force and distort arguments when the accepted givens are so strictly defined and counterpointed. This problem should be evident to anyone in America today who sees how opposition to ideas is transformed into meaninglessly pejorative identities. The temptation of thought-terminating cliches grows ever more in the face of such opposing forces as Voltaire presents.

No doubt much of Voltaires popularity stems from the fact that he is so narrowly applicable and divisive. In this way he almost works like a philosopher since his ideas are so forcefully professed. However, unlike a philosopher he represents his opponents in a state of utter ridicule, he is less convincing than polarizing.

The other part of Voltaires popularity comes from his empty century. The Seventeenth had Shakespeare and Milton. The Nineteenth showed the ridiculously fecund blossoming of the Romantics. The Eighteenth, however, has Fielding, Swift, Voltaire, and Pope. Fielding has escaped as wide a reading because his satire was more social than strictly political. Pope and Swift were likewise satirists, but of such a fanciful nature as to escape more simplistic and contentious forces. This leaves us with the more accessible Voltaire, who may be used to attack ideas, but not to build upon them.

مشاهده لینک اصلی
If you can imagine a smooth blend of the Book of Job, Dantes Inferno, Cervantes Don Quixote and Butlers Erewhon, with the addition of a heavy dollop of extra absurdity, you are getting close to the nature of Candide. That absurdity is what makes the tale funny and without it, it would be an unpaletable concoction.

There is a good deal of social and political satire, something I often find to be a little weak; its easy to point and laugh, harder to say what might be better. Voltaire, does however, offer some kind of alternative that he thinks is better than what he is lampooning, which is greatly to his credit.

I suppose I should explain how Candide relates to the other works mentioned above:
Its like Don Quixote in that the protagonist is frequently physically abused and this is used as broad humour and also in that the tale starts of as a rapid set of incidents and then slows down into some sort of coherent narrative. (This change being seen between parts one and two of Don Quixote.) It is like the Inferno in that certain historical figures and Voltaires contemporary enemies keep turning up in order to be lambasted. It is like Erewhon in that there is a visit to Eldorado, a mythical country which is used to highlight supposed social absurdities back in Europe, Erewhon does the same thing, though perhaps not in the same way: contrast is used in Candide, whereas transposition of ideas into other realms is used in Erewhon. As for the Book of Job, well, the frequency and extremity of misfortunes heaped on Candide bears a resemblence to those heaped on Job by Satan.

Candide has a big advantage over all the works listed above: its short. This edition has on facing pages the original French and an English translation and is still not much more than 150p. The fact that it can cover such a broad territory in such a condensed space is impressive. Its an easy read, too - so I think you should read it. It should make you think as well as laugh.

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